Sunday, July 31, 2005

The ethics of foreskin

One of the highlights of last week’s International AIDS Society conference in Brazil was the presentation of new data suggesting that circumcision significantly reduces a man’s chance of becoming infected by HIV through hetrosexual intercourse. A study sponsored by the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS) and conducted with over three thousand HIV-negative young (18-24 yrs.) South African men found that circumcision reduced female-to-male HIV transmission by approximately 65%. The ANRS 1265 study is the first randomized controlled trial demonstrating a strong protective effect of male circumcision on HIV transmission. Data from two similarly designed studies in Uganda and Kenya will be available in 2007. (And no, none of these trials are double-blinded.)

The suspicion that circumcision could reduce the risk of men acquiring HIV through heterosexual intercourse has been around since 1986. Since then, around thirty studies have indicated a positive association between circumcision and lowered HIV transmission, but these studies (and their policy implications) have long been controversial. Skeptics have questioned their scientific validity, while others have deep reservations about the ethics of circumcision as a public health intervention, even if the causal relationship between circumcision and transmission is confirmed.

According to skeptics, previous studies have proven incapable of demonstrating that lower transmission rates among circumcised men are due to the removal of foreskin itself rather than confounding variables. For example, much has been made of the lowered HIV acquisition rates among circumcised Muslim males, but this could be due to differences in sexual ethics and other cultural factors, such as prohibitions against alcohol. Especially in Africa, the rite of circumcision is closely tied to ethnicity, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of circumcision from behaviors rooted in local tradition. If a website passionately devoted to the virtues of males remaining ‘intact’ is anything to go by, the new ANRS study may leave skeptics cold. It is worth pointing out that during medical history circumcision has also been said to prevent insanity, paralysis, bedwetting, excessive masturbation, impotence, tuberculosis, prostate cancer, syphilis, cervical and penile cancer. Foreskins have long been unpopular in medical circles.

But there are ethical worries about implementation even if the conclusions of the study seem solid. The ‘good news’ may cause a sharp demand for circumcisions in sub-Saharan Africa, but at present they are most likely to be performed by traditional healers in less-than-hygienic circumstances. Circumcision may also increase unsafe sex practices in so far as men and women come to regard it as a ‘natural condom’: a tragic outcome, since a policy of circumcision does nothing to reduce the risks of male-to-female transmission of HIV. And if circumcision is encouraged but the long-term protectiveness of circumcision turns out to be much less than supposed, the damage to public confidence in the medical establishment and the impact on the fight against HIV/AIDS could be enormous.

37 Comments:

Blogger jon said...

I was looking at your posts about awareness breast cancer and found a good article about the same awareness breast cancer info too...

God luck with it : )

2:16 PM  
Blogger Tom Naka said...

Keep it up. I enjoy your nice blog. check out my museum of health and medicine
site. It pretty much covers museum of health and medicine
related stuff.

11:12 AM  
Blogger Tom Naka said...

Nice blog. Please check out my oklahoma student health insurance
site. It is all about oklahoma student health insurance
informations.

8:25 PM  
Blogger amacdrummer said...

I liked your breast california cancer condition state blog.... You might find this breast california cancer condition state site interestin :breast california cancer condition state

3:32 AM  
Blogger Josh said...

I found a bunch of help here mesothelioma research

10:58 AM  
Blogger Editor said...

Wow that´s a great blog that you have there, mine is slightly differnent but it basically covers the same topics.

I have a lymph node cancer site. It pretty much covers Cancer related stuff.

Check it out, you won´t regret it... Cheers.. Roger From Http://www.havecancer.com

8:45 PM  
Blogger Mizambar 6294 said...

Hey, you have a great blog here! I'm definitely going to bookmark you! The information and Internet marketing product evaluations that you provide are great for beginner webmasters.

I have a business com en language online site site/blog. It pretty much covers business com en language online site related stuff.

Come and check it out if you get time :-)

5:46 AM  
Blogger TheDevilIsInTheDetails said...

And on a lighter note than pure patent lawyer , check out the funniest trial transcript ever! If it's not serious enough of a topic, well, just pretend it's the Brit's version of patent lawyer !

7:46 AM  
Blogger Editor said...

Nice blog that you have here.

I have a cervix cancer site. It pretty much covers Cancer related stuff.

Come and check it out if you get time :-) Cheers / Roger

9:34 AM  
Blogger Skymaker6 said...

I think you have a very good Blog here, I will have to book mark this one, you do a very good job on covering prostate health massage. I also have a Blog call the 'The Men's Guide to Prostate Health', If you have time maybe some day you can take a look at let me know what you think, it at prostate health massage

7:01 PM  
Blogger Skymaker6 said...

Hi there, I think you have a great blog on natural prostate health, I will have book mark your site. If you have time, you may want to look at my health site, it's natural prostate health

7:02 PM  
Blogger Editor said...

Nice blog that you have here..

I have a lung cancer site. It pretty much covers Cancer related stuff.

Come and check it out if you get time :-)

7:44 PM  
Blogger Joe Berenguer said...

I was just searching blogs,and I found your site, Friend! I like it!
Please accept my compliments and wishes for your happiness and success.
If you have a moment, please take a look at my site:
Make Easy Money
It pretty much covers Make Easy Money related issues.
All the best!

8:19 PM  
Blogger Health News said...

Hi,
I found reading your blog interesting and well done, I do like what you have done with your site but it is not really the information I was after about type of breast cancer . Keep up the good work and hopefully I will visit again sometime and also find the information on type of breast cancer that I was looking for in my travels.
Regards,

8:39 PM  
Blogger Tech Blogger said...

Hi,
While I was searching through Blogger I came past your site, it is not really the information I was after about type of breast cancer but I did stay to read your blog and found it interesting and well done. Keep up the good work and hopefully I will visit again sometime and also find the information on type of breast cancer that I was looking for in my travels.
Regards,Regards,

5:02 AM  
Blogger Tech Blogger said...

Hi,
I came past your site while I was searching through Blogger, it is not really the information I was after about sign of breast cancer but I did stay to read your blog and found it interesting and well done, I do like what you have done with your site. Keep up the good work and hopefully I will visit again sometime and also find the information on sign of breast cancer that I was looking for in my travels.
Regards,

10:10 PM  
Blogger Health Blogger said...

Hi,
I found reading your blog interesting and well done, I do like what you have done with your site but it is not really the information I was after about breast cancer symptom . Keep up the good work and hopefully I will visit again sometime and also find the information on breast cancer symptom that I was looking for in my travels.
Regards,

1:05 AM  
Blogger Health News said...

Hi,
While I was searching through Blogger I came past your site, it is not really the information I was after about breast cancer ribbon but I did stay to read your blog and found it interesting and well done. Keep up the good work and hopefully I will visit again sometime and also find the information on breast cancer ribbon that I was looking for in my travels.
Regards,Regards,

9:54 AM  
Blogger Tech Blogger said...

Hi,
While I was searching through Blogger I came past your site, it is not really the information I was after about breast cancer statistics but I did stay to read your blog and found it interesting and well done. Keep up the good work and hopefully I will visit again sometime and also find the information on breast cancer statistics that I was looking for in my travels.
Regards,Regards,

8:19 PM  
Blogger Health Blogger said...

Hi,
While I was searching through Blogger I came past your site, it is not really the information I was after about cause of breast cancer but I did stay to read your blog and found it interesting and well done. Keep up the good work and hopefully I will visit again sometime and also find the information on cause of breast cancer that I was looking for in my travels.
Regards,Regards,

1:29 AM  
Blogger successwithwomen said...

Voil�...well said!

What do you think of my success with women
blog?

4:47 PM  
Blogger Mesothelioma Resource said...

Hi blogger, I was out blogging and came across your site. It's been great reading through. It certainly looks like you've taken time to organise it. Well done and keep up the good work.

Regards
Malignant Mesothelioma Information

12:05 AM  
Blogger Enlargement said...

Hey, you sure got a nice blog here with some very interesting stuff. I've already put a bookmark on it.

It's a pity I spend so much time blog-surfing that I often forget my own. Silly me. :) But its so addictive.

Anyway, a lot of people are trying to make cash online nowadays, so I thought I'd help you out with a site that has some great tools.

prostate health
Not bad to sit around doing nothing while your bank balance keeps growing. :)

12:55 PM  
Blogger Enlargement said...

I have a similar website tied to prostate health Come by some time.
I absolutely fancy your website, It's bookmarked! This information is fine stuff.

3:05 PM  
Blogger Stan said...

Welcome to the "Massage Article" Site. On this site we address many topics about male massage that will
help you learn about the different types of massages and how they effect your body.Welcome to the "Massage" Site. On this site we address many topics that will
help you learn about the different types of massages and how they effect your body. http://yourebooksuperstore.com/massage

1:43 PM  
Blogger Stan said...

Welcome to the "Massage Article" Site. On this site we address many topics about back massage that will
help you learn about the different types of massages and how they effect your body.Welcome to the "Massage" Site. On this site we address many topics that will
help you learn about the different types of massages and how they effect your body. http://yourebooksuperstore.com/massage

2:51 PM  
Blogger earnest said...

Here's a useful resources on nutrients help prevent breast cancer worth a look: http://breast-cancer1.com/

9:17 PM  
Blogger Stan said...

Welcome to the "Massage Article" Site. On this site we address many topics about massage that will
help you learn about the different types of massages and how they effect your body.Welcome to the "Massage" Site. On this site we address many topics that will
help you learn about the different types of massages and how they effect your body. http://yourebooksuperstore.com/massage

2:42 PM  
Blogger earnest said...

Here's a useful resources on natural self defense breast cancer worth a look: http://breast-cancer1.com/

2:27 AM  
Blogger achamka said...

Here's a useful resources on breast cancer detection unit worth a look: http://breast-cancer1.com/

4:40 AM  
Blogger helpful said...

Here's a useful resources on nutrients help prevent breast cancer worth a look: http://breast-cancer1.com/

3:20 PM  
Blogger Scott A. Edwards said...

Hey, you have a great blog here! You really are very talented and deserve an honest compliment, congradulations! I'm definitely going to bookmark you!

I have a earn residual income site/blog. It successfully covers earn residual income related stuff.

Come and check it out if you get time, Scott.

2:46 PM  
Blogger PenisMan said...

Cool site on naked man Check out my Penis Enlargement Pills

8:30 AM  
Blogger Jason Walker said...

Welcome to http://weight-loss.medicsweb.com where you are going to find new information about weight loss.

11:47 AM  
Blogger earnest said...

» International Trial Of Novel Breast Cancer Drug
14/12/06 07:03 from Breast cancer blog from medicineworld.org
-------------------------------------------------------------
A clinical trial of a new targeted breast cancer drug, led by
physicians at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer
Center, has begun enrolling patients. The TEACH (Tykerb
Evaluation After CHemotherapy) trial will investigate ...


For useful content on fourteen simple things on breast cancer, breast cancer life expectancy and insidiousness of breast cancer: check
the url is http://breast-cancer1.com

4:45 AM  
Blogger milf said...

black mold exposureblack mold symptoms of exposurewrought iron garden gatesiron garden gates find them herefine thin hair hairstylessearch hair styles for fine thin hairnight vision binocularsbuy night vision binocularslipitor reactionslipitor allergic reactionsluxury beach resort in the philippines

afordable beach resorts in the philippineshomeopathy for eczema.baby eczema.save big with great mineral makeup bargainsmineral makeup wholesalersprodam iphone Apple prodam iphone prahacect iphone manualmanual for P 168 iphonefero 52 binocularsnight vision Fero 52 binocularsThe best night vision binoculars here

night vision binoculars bargainsfree photo albums computer programsfree software to make photo albumsfree tax formsprintable tax forms for free craftmatic air bedcraftmatic air bed adjustable info hereboyd air bedboyd night air bed lowest pricefind air beds in wisconsinbest air beds in wisconsincloud air beds

best cloud inflatable air bedssealy air beds portableportables air bedsrv luggage racksaluminum made rv luggage racksair bed raisedbest form raised air bedsaircraft support equipmentsbest support equipments for aircraftsbed air informercialsbest informercials bed airmattress sized air beds

bestair bed mattress antique doorknobsantique doorknob identification tipsdvd player troubleshootingtroubleshooting with the dvd playerflat panel television lcd vs plasmaflat panel lcd television versus plasma pic the bestThe causes of economic recessionwhat are the causes of economic recessionadjustable bed air foam The best bed air foam

hoof prints antique equestrian printsantique hoof prints equestrian printsBuy air bedadjustablebuy the best adjustable air bedsair beds canadian storesCanadian stores for air beds

migraine causemigraine treatments floridaflorida headache clinicdrying dessicantair drying dessicantdessicant air dryerpediatric asthmaasthma specialistasthma children specialistcarpet cleaning dallas txcarpet cleaners dallascarpet cleaning dallas

vero beach vacationvero beach vacationsbeach vacation homes veroms beach vacationsms beach vacationms beach condosmaui beach vacationmaui beach vacationsmaui beach clubbeach vacationsyour beach vacationscheap beach vacations

bob hairstylebob haircutsbob layeredpob hairstylebobbedclassic bobCare for Curly HairTips for Curly Haircurly hair12r 22.5 best pricetires truck bustires 12r 22.5

6:03 PM  
Blogger Anna said...

Actually the reason for this is not clear for me. Clenbuterol

9:50 AM  

Post a Comment

<< Home